Nibiru & The Anunnaki
The Sumerian civilization is the most ancient one that we know of. Among the earliest civilizations were the diverse peoples living in the fertile valleys lying between the Tigris and Euphrates valley, or Mesopotamia. Pseudoresearcher Zecharia Sitchin is known for his theories and books on the Anunnakis.
By Michele Bugliaro Goggia - last modified: April 12, 2007 5:49 PM
The Sumerian civilization is the most ancient one that we know of. Among the earliest civilizations were the diverse people living in the fertile valleys lying between the Tigris and Euphrates valley, or Mesopotamia, which in Greek means, "between the rivers." In the south of such region, in an area today known as Kuwait and northern Saudi Arabia, a mysterious group of people, speaking a language unrelated with any other, began to live in cities, which were ruled by some sort of monarch. They began to write. These were the Sumerians. Around 3000 BC, they began to form large city-states in southern Mesopotamia that controlled areas of several hundred square miles. The names of these cities speak from a distant and foggy past: Ur, Lagash, Eridu. The Sumerians were constantly at war with one another and other people as well: water was a scarce and valuable resource. The result of these wars was the growth of larger city-states as the more powerful swallowed up the smaller city-states.
Eventually, the Sumerians would have to battle another people, the Akkadians, who migrated up from the Arabian Peninsula. The Akkadians were a Semitic people: they spoke a Semitic language related to languages such as Hebrew and Arabic. When the two peoples clashed, the Sumerians gradually lost control over their city-states they had so brilliantly created, and fell under the hegemony of the Akkadians, which was based in Akkad, the city that was later to become Babylon.
Pseudoresearcher Zecharia Sitchin is known for his theories and books on the Anunnaki. He was born in Russia and raised in Palestine, where he acquired a knowledge of modern and ancient Hebrew, other Semitic and European languages, the Old Testament, and the history and archaeology of the Near East. Sitchin attended and graduated from the University of London, majoring in economic history. He states Sumerians knew exactly every position of all the planets in our solar system, included the most distant from the Sun they called Nibiru. Sitchin claims some sources speak about the same planet, possibly being a brown dwarf star and still in a highly elliptic orbit around the Sun, with a perihelion passage some 3,600 years ago and assumed orbital period of about 3,600 to 3,760 years or 3,741 years.
Sitchin claims that artifacts and documents from the great library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh and other sources, show technology and advanced scientific knowledge out of place for their time period. This he claims as proof for the following theory. According to Sitchin in his book The 12th Planet, the Annunaki were extraterrestrials related to the Biblical Nephilim. He claims that they first arrived on Earth probably 450,000 years ago, looking for minerals, especially gold, which they found and mined in Africa.
According to Sitchin, the "chiefs" of the Anunnaki were a rank belonging to the colonial expedition to Earth from the 12th planet, also known later, through the Babylonians, as Marduk. The Nephilim were the commanders of the operation. Sitchin claims that ancient records report that a human civilization in Sumer of Mesopotamia was set up under the tutelage of these "gods" and human kings were inaugurated as go-betweens, foremen of the human populations answering to the Annunaki. Who were the Nephilim?
The Anunnaki performed the menial labor, mining ores and building bases, while the Nephilim issued the orders setting these tasks into motion. It was only due to an uprising by the Anunnaki against the Nephilim in protest of these conditions that the Anunnaki workers revolted against their overseers. Because of this, the Nephilim and Anunnaki came together in a project to blend the DNA of Homo erectus with that of their own, thus giving rise to the Homo sapiens. Sitchin proposes that fallout from the nuclear weapons used during this struggle was the "evil wind" that destroyed Ur c. 2000 BCE, as recorded in the Lament for Ur.
Eventually, both Anunnaki and Nephilim left Earth. Some humans survived. Since then, the Anunnaki reevaluated the humankind deciding to give it another chance and assistance as well. Some of them remained on Earth for this purpose and, adored as Gods, they started the Sumerian civilization towards 3'800 a. C., followed by Babylonian, Egyptian and Indo Valley cultures. Always ruled by the Anunnaki, some knowledge of astronomy was given to priests. They instructed people how to build the temples ("ziggurat") that were built to observe the solstices and the stars. The extraterrestrial dynasties slowly extincted and humans went on by themselves.
Is it true?
Sitchin presents himself as a scholar and expert of Sumerian history. Sitchin's interpretations may not be correct. He is an economist and not an archeologist. With all respect, this cannot make him an expert of Sumerian language. Sceptics say his sources are obsolete. Michael S. Heiser, M.A. and Ph.D. in Hebrew Bible and Ancient Semitic Languages from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is a scholar expert in Semitic languages who can examine the ideas around Nibiru.
First of all, when there are already other translations, Sitchin does his own:
In the final version quoted in The 12th Planet, I have compared the available translations against each other and against Hebrew source and the parallel Sumerian and Akkadian texts/tales, to come up with what I believe is the most accurate rendering. (Sitchin, Authors Note)
Unfortunately, it appears he has adapted ancient sources to his vision. Let's talk about the gods. An (or Anu) has been put at the top of the divine pantheon by Sitchin, when in fact Enlil had that place, according to official sources. Michael S. Heiser, quoted above, points out something worth to remember regarding Nephilims:
Sitchin assumes "Nephilim" comes from the Hebrew word "naphal" (as opposed to ARAMAIC - see below) which usually means "to fall." He then forces the meaning "to come down" onto the word, creating his "to come down from above" translation. "Nephilim" - in the form we find it in the Hebrew Bible - COULD come from Hebrew "naphal," but it could ONLY be translated one way in light of the spelling - "those who are fallen" (i.e., either "fallen in battle" - which is out of the question given the context of Genesis 6 - or "spiritually fallen" / evil - which fits the context IF the sons of God are evil). To see that the sons of God in Genesis 6 were evil divine beings and this cohabitation was evil, one needs only to turn to either Jude 6-7 and II Peter 2:4-6, or the Book of Enoch.
The castle is falling. Where is Nibiru? Be reasonable: a planet like Nibiru cannot support life. No astronomer has discovered it. A brown dwarf with a period of 3,760 years would be clearly evident through infrared and gravitational observations. I'd say it does not exist.
It's true all Sitchin has raised is ridicule from the Scientific Community. It is still possible that, with the help of serious historians and archeologists, the Nibiru case may be studied again and reorganized as well. Without Sitchin.
Sitchin's theories aside, there is something more credible. The Sumerian civilization may have been started by Oannes, an alleged amphibian intelligent being. According to history, Oannes arrived 5'000 years ago: he introduced the writing ("cuneiform") in the Mesopotamian Valley (persian Gulf) about 6'000 years ago. Who was Oannes? A travelling man? An extraterrestrial? Let's say we don't know if there has existed a previous civilization. In that case, Oannes may be a traveller. It is very interesting to start from what Berossus (Akkadian Bel-re'us¹unu) has written: a Babylonian priest, he wrote a Greek history of Babylonia in the first half of the third century BC. About Oannes, Berossus wrote:
"In the first year there appeared from the Erythraean Sea (the Red Sea), in the region of Babylonia, a living creature, strong and terrible, named Oannes. It had the entire body of a fish, but another head stood forth beneath, under the head of the fish, and feet as of a man stood forth out of the tail of the fish. And it had the voice of a man." He continues to write stating that, "Oannes delivered to men the knowledge of writing and mathematics, and of all the branches of the arts; the plans of cities and the building of temples, the essentials of laws and customs, and the measurement of lands, and showed them the way with seeds and the gathering of fruits..."
If you read carefully, and think, you'll notice that, if Oannes taught what he knew, there must've been a place and a civilization from whom he too learned all this. In fact, after Oannes, others like him arrived. If there was such a civilization, there may also be archeological remains. Well, nothing has been found. It's interesting to remark why and how the ETH should not be dismissed fast: if Oannes was a human, he'd surely have eaten and slept with the Sumerians. But, according to Berossus, he did not. Finally, the creature slept into the sea. Which is enough to discredit the human traveller hypothesis.
© Michele Bugliaro Goggia. All rights reserved. All content on the Ufopsi website, including texts and graphics, is property of Michele Bugliaro Goggia. Some content may be protected by other copyrights and other restrictions as well. Site designed for 1024x768 resolution.